Mirror electron microscopy for the detection of nano-scopic defects
The mirror electron microscope (MEM) was invented on 1935. Since then, a limited number of studies using a MEM have been reported. Electron images created by a MEM are so deformed that the genuine structures of a sample surface are not precisely observed, which makes a MEM an unpopular technique now as a microscope to reveal the unknown surface structures of a sample. This deformation character in MEM image formation, however, provides benefits to detect nano-scopic defects on extremely flat surfaces of semiconductor wafers used in electronic device industries. For example, nano-meter sized particles and crystal defects on the wafers are easily detected because they are expanded in MEM images. In this article, some examples of the defect detection in MEM images are presented.
- 1 Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation